manbetxapp下载 Learning Resources Machine Control 制造业 气动学 气动学More 产品

What is a Pneumatic System?

In machine automation a pneumatic system provides a simple and cost-effective means to move, clamp, rotate, grind and screw.

A pneumatic system is a collection of interconnected components using compressed air to do work for automated equipment. Examples can be found in industrial manufacturing, a home garage or a dentist office. This work is produced in the form of linear or rotary motion. The compressed air or pressurized gas is usually filtered and dried to protect the cylinders, actuators, tools and bladders performing the work. Some applications require a lubrication device that adds an oil mist to the closed pressurized system.

parts for pneumatic systems

气动学是一种施用流体动力 - 在这万博官网手机登陆种情况下,在压力下使用气态介质产生,发射和控制功率;通常使用压缩气体,例如空气,压力为60至120磅/平方英寸(PSI)。液压是另一种形式的流体动力,其使用诸如油的液体介质,但在高大的压力下,典型的800至5000psi。

A big reason pneumatics are used is due to simplicity. With little experience, on-off control of machines and equipment can be designed and assembled quickly using pneumatic components such as valves and cylinders. With proper air preparation, pneumatics systems are also reliable, providing a long service life with little maintenance needed.

Be Efficient

While a design using pneumatics is simple, there are some techniques to help make a better, more efficient system. It’s important to eliminate leaks. Any signs of an air leak should be addressed immediately. Related to this is tube length. Shorter tube lengths minimize system volume that must be pressurized and wasted each cycle, in turn minimizing air use. A valve mounted directly to a cylinder is an extreme example, providing the quickest pneumatic system response as well.

When selecting pneumatic components, be sure to not oversize them. This includes cylinders, valves, hose and tubes. Use online气动空气消耗工具to assist with this. Basically, determine the force needed to perform the work, calculating cylinder bore size based on this and the pressure available. With the pressure and cylinder bore known, calculate the valve air volume in cubic feet per minute (CFM), using the pressure, bore, stroke length and time for stroke.

While the cylinder is performing work, during clamping for example, a suitable design pressure of 60 to 80 PSI is common. However, retracting the clamps at a lower pressure uses less energy, so consider using a low pressure return or homing pressure.

Pneumatic System Components

There are many components connected to create a complete pneumatic system. Nearly all pneumatics systems consist of these items:

  • 一种生成压缩空气来为系统供电的方法。这通常是植物空气压缩机,通常包括压力罐,用于预留空气,以及用于机器和设备的分配管道。
  • 一种在机器处调节压缩机和本地的压缩空气的方法。所有气动运动都需要清洁和干燥的空气,流量和压力足以执行工作。过滤,调节和润滑压缩空气的过程称为空气制剂或空气制备。制造工厂包括在集中式压缩机的空气准备,并且额外的空气准备在每种机器的使用点都是有益的。这包括手动关闭,一个过滤器,用于根据需要去除污垢,油和水,调节器以控制系统压力,并且可能是润滑器,以在需要空气工具或相似时润滑空气。还包括“软启动/排气倾卸”阀,用于在安全事件期间断电时关闭上游压力并快速释放导致下游压力(气动能量)的上游压力并快速缓解运动。
pneumatic systems
  • A method of controlling the directional flow of air. These are typically one or more types of valves. A good choice in machine control would be a 5-way, 3-position, center-exhaust valve where the center off position dumps air from both sides of the cylinder when an emergency stop is pressed, and power is removed. This valve typically operates using two 24 VDC solenoids. Energizing individual solenoids extends or retracts its corresponding cylinder.
  • 一个或多个空气驱动的工作装置。这些可以是直线或旋转致动器(圆柱体),夹具,电机,空气喷嘴等。
parts for pneumatic systems
  • A collection or fittings and piping to connect all the components of a pneumatic system. These include rigid pipe and tubing or flexible tubing or hoses. Most cylinders include flow controls to both ports, to limit the cylinder speed by restricting air as it leaves the cylinder.

Pneumatic systems are common in industrial machine automation. Be sure to supply, prepare and distribute the air properly. When correctly selected, assembled and installed, pneumatic devices and actuators will have a long, efficient life with limited maintenance required.

To read more articles about pneumatics,click here.